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Diphthongs, Modified Vowels and Vowel Digraphs

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Diphthongs, Modified Vowels and Vowel Digraphs
A diphthong is two vowel sounds in one syllable. The diphthong ow and ou make the ow sound as in cow.
1. Words with diphthongs ow and ou
blouse
cow
dowel
out
crown
ouch
house
bow
towel
pout
clown
pouch
mouse
how
vowel
about
frown
couch
found
now
growl
scout
down
tower
hound
wow
our
shout
gown
power
pound
plow
hour
snout
town
flower
round
owl
flour
sprout
mouth
shower
sound
fowl
loud
route
south
mountain
ground
howl
proud
brown
count
thousand
When the consonant r after the vowel a, it changes the sound of the vowel as in ark.
2. Modified vowels: är words
bar
star
hark
cart
farmer
barber
car
bard
lark
dart
harm
garden
far
card
mark
mart
alarm
harbor
gar
guard
park
part
charm
harness
jar
hard
shark
tart
arch
harvest
mar
yard
spark
chart
march
market
par
ark
barn
start
carp
pardon
tar
bark
yarn
arm
harp
regard
spar
dark
art
farm
sharp
sparkle
A diphthong is two vowels sounds in one syllable. The diphthongs oi and oy make the oi sound as in oil.
3. Words with diphthongs oi and oy
oil
soil
point
moist
toy
enjoy
boil
broil
voice
noise
coin
destroy
coil
spoil
choice
boy
join
loyal
fail
joint
hoist
joy
poison
royalty
When the consonant r comes after the vowel o, it changes the sound of the vowel as in for. The or sound is marked like this: côrn.
4. Modified vowel ôr words
Lord
fort
core
snore
torch
north
door
port
more
store
born
acorn
floor
short
sore
horse
corn
corner
fork
sport
tore
storm
horn
organ
stork
forty
score
porch
thorn
uniform
A vowel digraph has two vowels that make one sound. The digraph oo makes the sound of oo as in zoo.
5. Words with the vowel digraph oo as in zoo
broom
moose
soon
pool
zoo
smooth
room
noodle
spoon
spool
shoot
food
hoop
poodle
roost
stool
roof
balloon
loop
too
rooster
school
proof
igloo
goose
moon
tool
boot
booth
raccoon
loose
moon
fool
root
tooth
snooze
A vowel digraph has two vowels that make one sound. The digraph oo makes the sound of oo as in look.
6. Words with the vowel digraph oo as in book; o, u, and ou can say oo
book
brook
good
wool
wolf
bull
cook
crook
hood
woolen
wolves
full
hook
shook
stood
foot
put
pull
look
cookie
wood
soot
bush
could
nook
booklet
woody
unhook
push
would
took
brooklet
wooden
lookout
cushion
should
When the consonant r comes after the vowel e, it changes the sound of the vowel as in herd. The er sound is a combination of the schwa (ə) and r sounds.
7. Modified vowel er words
herd
sister
circle
birthday
turkey
early
germ
cracker
circus
thirteen
purple
earn
term
hammer
bird
thirty
hurry
learn
fern
pitcher
third
fur
nurse
earth
eternal
rocker
girl
curb
purse
word
verse
water
firm
church
burst
work
serve
zipper
squirrel
injure
hurt
world
person
fir
dirt
sure
curtain
worm
father
sir
shirt
curl
turtle
worry
mother
stir
skirt
burn
heard
worship
brother
giraffe
first
turn
pearl
worth
The vowel o makes different sounds and one of them is the sound of ô as in dôg.
8. Words with the sound of ô as in dog
off
moth
claw
draw
crawl
taught
dog
belong
small
straw
shawl
fault
fog
strong
stall
thaw
sprawl
ought
hog
wrong
talk
dawn
faucet
brought
log
ball
walk
fawn
awning
fought
frog
call
stalk
lawn
awful
brought
smog
fall
salt
yawn
auto
thought
boss
hall
malt
brawn
because
autumn
toss
mall
law
drawn
caught
haughty
cross
tall
paw
hawk
daughter
laundry
cloth
wall
saw
brawl
naughty
cough (f)
You have learned the sound of är as in arm. These letters also make the sound of are as in squâre.
9. Modified âre words
bare
blare
fair
pear
cherry
aware
care
flare
hair
tear
their
barrel
dare
share
pair
wear
where
dairy
hare
carry
stair
berry
there
errand
rare
marry
chair
ferry
carrot
error
ware
air
bear
merry
parrot
square
The letter c usually has the sound of s when it is followed by the vowels e, i, or y. This is called the soft sound of c. Likewise, the soft sound of the letter g makes the j sound when it is followed by e, i, or y.
10. The soft sounds of the letters c and g
ice
juice
glance
necklace
badge
hedge
dice
base
city
circle
large
pledge
lice
face
cymbals
circus
barge
engine
mice
lace
ounce
age
charge
giraffe
nice
pace
bounce
cage
gem
hinge
rice
race
pounce
gage
ridge
danger
vice
brace
fence
page
bridge
giant
slice
place
pencil
rage
gum
orange
spice
space
prince
sage
gypsy
range
price
trace
lettuce
stage
Egypt
change
twice
chance
celery
wage
wedge
manger
A vowel digraph has two vowels that makes one sound. The digraph ea makes the sound of e as in head.
11. Words with the vowel digraph ea which has the short vowel e sound
dead
dread
thread
meant
threat
sweater
head
spread
deaf
weapons
breath
weather
lead
stead
breakfast
peasant
death
headache
read
steady
health
pleasant
feather
treasure
ready
instead
wealth
pleasure
heather
measure
bread
tread
cleanser
sweat
leather
meadow
           
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